EMN Studies

EMN prepares short-term and long-term research studies on topics from the field of migration and asylum that are used by policy makers and other stakeholders at the national and the EU level.

How are topics of a study selected?

The topics of the research studies are selected on the basis of proposals submitted by the EMN National Contact Points and/or the European Commission and are chosen based on the importance attributed to them by the migration policy makers of the EMN members, the European Commission and relevant agencies. Steering Board makes the final decision and officially approves the selection of topics under the annual EMN work program.

How does the EMN produce its studies?

EMN, in co-operation with relevant migration policy makers, initially agrees on common specifications for each study to allow better comparison between the EMN members. Each EMN NCP compiles a national report according to common specifications, and often includes contributions from members of their national networks. Consequently, a comparative summary of the report is produced, which puts the main findings of the national reports in the EU perspective (e.g. relates them to the latest policy initiatives).

Changing Influx of Asylum Seekers 2014 - 2016

In the period from 2014 to2016 EU Member States and Norway experienced an extensive influx of incoming applicants for international protection. To illustrate, the number of 600 000 asylum seekers in EU and Norway in 2014 rose to 1.32 million in 2015 and was sustained at that level throughout 2016 (1.26 million applications).

This mass influx led to backlogs in registrations of international protection applications, pressures on reception centres, and other operational and organizational challenges. EMN recently published the Synthesis Report of the Study covering this topic and which includes contributions from 25 EMN National Contact Points.


Approaches to Unaccompanied Minors Following Status Determination

Almost 270 000 unaccompanied minors (without a parent or an adult responsible by law) came to the EU and Norway between 2014 and 2017.

Most of them came to seek asylum, however, a significant share also came for other reasons.

This Study explores the situation of unaccompanied minors who have been granted a residence permit or issued a return decision and gives the overview of international, EU and national legislation on unaccompanied minors.


The Effectiveness of Return in EU Member States

The EMN Annual Report on Migration and Asylum provides an overview of the most significant EU and national policies as well as legislative developments in the fields of migration and international protection that were achieved in 2017. The report is based on the contributions of 25 EMN member states, covering eight key areas, namely: legal migration and mobility, international protection including asylum, unaccompanied minors and other vulnerable groups, integration of migrants, irregular migration, return, actions against trafficking in human beings and maximizing development impact of migration and mobility.
Annual report can be downloaded here:

Challenges and Procedures for Determining the Identity of Third-country Nationals in Migration Procedures

This report presents the main findings of the EMN's Focussed Study on Challenges and Practices for Identifying Third Country Nationals in Migration Procedures based on national reports of 26 EMN members. The aim of this Study is to highlight the important challenges faced by national authorities in their efforts to reliably establish and verify the identity of third country nationals in the context of various migration procedures - those relating to asylum, return and legal migration channels (including short- and long-term visas, as well as residence permits) - and national practices to address these challenges.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Illegal Employment of Third-country Nationals in the European Union

This report provides main findings of the EMN study which analyzes policies and practices of the EU Member States to prevent, identify and sanction illegal employment of third-country nationals. The Study was conducted on the basis of national reports from 23 EMN members, examining each of the four stages of illegal employment: preventive measures and incentives for employers and employees, identification of illegal employment of TCNs, sanctions for employers and outcomes for employees.
The Report on the EMN Study can be downloaded here:

Family Reunification of Third-country Nationals: National Practices 2016

The process of family reunification of third-country nationals in the European Union is one of the main migration and asylum policies. This Report presents the results of the EMN's focussed study, whose main objectives were to examine national policies and practices in member countries in terms of eligibility criteria for sponsors and family members, requirements for family reunification, integration measures before and after admission, application procedure, rights of third-country nationals and their families and policies regarding non-renewal or withdrawal of residence permits.
The Report on the EMN Study can be downloaded here:

Resettlement and Humanitarian Admission Programmes in Europe

This EMN Study gives a summary of the main findings on resettlement and humanitarian admission programmes in Europe based on data provided by 24 EMN members. The Study also explains the differences and similarities between these two concepts, to what extent individual EMN members have experience with each, and what the goals of such programmes are.
The Study can be downloaded here:

The Return of Rejected Asylum Seekers: Challenges and Good Practices

Given the increase in the number of asylum applications in the European Union and taking into account the large difference between the number of third-country nationals whose applicationa have been rejected and those who have actually returned, the European Migration Network has conducted this Study to research specific challenges in the process of return of rejected asylum seekers and Member States responses to these challenges.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Integration of Beneficiaries of International/Humanitarian Protection into the Labour Market: Policies and Good Practices

One of the major policies of the European Union,faced with ageing of population and labor shortages, is the integration of beneficiaries of international protection into the labor market. This Study presents the policies and good practices of 24 Member States that participated in the research, mainly in the field of labor market access and resolving possible obstacles, as well as support measures (orientation and language courses, counseling, access to housing, education, training, recognition of qualifications, grant of minimum resources). The results of this Study enable better recognition of the needs of the beneficiaries of international protection in process of integration to the European labor market, as well as the incentive for introducing specific measures tailored to these needs.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Smuggling of Migrants: Characteristics, Responses and Cooperation with Third Countries

The aim of this EMN Study was to analyze the situation in Europe with regard to smuggling of people, to identify the main causes of the problem and to define, through the analysis of existing measures, the key policies for preventing, reducing and fight against smuggling of people. The Study introduces a number of features of this process, such as dynamics, spread, methods of functioning and consequences of the phenomenon.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Dissemination of Information on Voluntary Return: How to Reach Irregular Migrants not in Contact with the Authorities

The overall objective of this Study was to inform the EMN members and the Commission on the various approaches in the EU and Norway regarding informing migrants with irregular status about return opportunities, with particular reference to voluntary and assisted voluntary return. Through the contributions of 25 EMN members , the Study presents solutions to the difficulties of disseminating information such as language barriers, lack of knowledge about migration channels, mistrust of migrants, and lack of strategy and methodology to effectively deliver information to the target group.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Determining Labour Shortages and the Need for Labour Migration from Third Countries in the EU

The lack of workers with the appropriate qualifications has become a major challenge affecting Europe's competitiveness. In the context of rapid technological change, the decline of the European population and ageing of the labor force indicates to labour shortage in the future. This Study analyzes the role of labour force migration in dealing with labor shortages, as well as instruments for detecting and measuring this phenomenon, and policies applied at national level.
The Study can be downloaded here:

The Use of Detention and Alternatives to Detention in the Context of Immigration Policies

Immigration detention is a non-punitive administrative measure applied by the state to restrict the movement of an individual through confinement in order for immigration procedure to be implemented. The European Union's acquis on asylum and migration envisages that detention could be justified in number of situations, such as preventing unauthorized entry into the territory, preventing escape in the process of return and also under certain conditions in the asylum process. This Study provides a thorough review of the use of detention and its alternatives based on the contributions of 26 EMN members.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Policies, Practices and Data on Unaccompanied Minors

Unaccompanied minors are a particularly vulnerable group of immigrants, and the reasons for their entry into the country are often unknown because they cannot articulate their motives well due to their age or trauma. Very often they are at the same time victims of trafficking. The data from this Study mainly concern those minors who have applied for asylum, since they provide accurate and detailed information on their situation while at the same time there is a large number of those who illegally reside in the EU.
The Study can be downloaded here:

Ministarstvo unutarnjih poslova Republike Hrvatske
International Organization for Migration
European Union
European Migration Network
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